In September 2018, the Constitutional Court of South Africa legalized the cultivation of cannabis for personal use as well as the use of cannabis outside the public sphere.  In its coalition agreement, the 2021 traffic light stipulated that cannabis should be legalized. Lauterbach would like to present the bill corresponding to the turn of the year, but the first cornerstones of the federal Ministry of Health`s document are already circulating. The use, possession and sale of cannabis in the United States is prohibited by federal law. Nevertheless, 19 of the 50 U.S. states as well as the Federal District and the seat of government in Washington, D.C. have so far legalized cannabis as an intoxicant for people aged 21 and older. But what about other parts of the world? Countries do not always opt completely for the legalization of cannabis. In some countries, drug possession and use are simply decriminalized or liberalized. In our information section, we show how Portugal, Uruguay and the Czech Republic treat cannabis handling differently. From 15 May 2021, applications for pilot tests with non-medical cannabis can be submitted to the Federal Office of Public Health. These studies aim to increase knowledge about the benefits and harms of controlled access to cannabis.
In particular, they should make it possible to examine and document the consequences on the health and consumption patterns of users in a scientific framework, but also to measure the effects on the local illicit drug market as well as on the protection of minors and public safety. This law, which replaces the previous laws 6.378 and 10.409, stipulates, among other things, that the possession and consumption of illegal drugs are no longer considered a crime and that users can therefore no longer be sentenced to prison. Until now, Brazil has faced sentences of six months to three years in prison for drug possession. Instead, less repressive means can now be used to try to influence illicit drug users. In particular, warnings, supervision by social workers or the obligation to perform community service may be considered as means. The start of legal sales was originally planned for mid-2014, but was postponed to 2015 due to technical difficulties with the pharmacy purchasing regulation software system, which however could not yet be achieved due to further delays (from November 2016). The start of the sale took place on the 19th. July 2017, initially in 16 pharmacies, which so far meet the requirements of the state.  Consumption is prohibited in the workplace, in public places or while driving.  Thailand was the first Asian country to legalize cannabis. But with restrictions: Although plants can now be grown and they can also be processed into food, smoking is prohibited. Some states have already fully legalized cannabis, but the legal situation in these countries is sometimes very different.
In Switzerland, cannabis falls under the Narcotics Act and is illegal. In the late 1990s, authorities in many townships tolerated the sale of marijuana as a “perfume bag” in hemp stores. Basel was particularly known for its liberal drug policy, where at rush hour there were more hemp shops than bakeries. However, the amount of sales made has led to a rapid increase in crime among suppliers. Cases of extortion, threats and robbery have become more frequent. This provided the police with the main reason for the extensive raids between 2002 and 2003, during which almost all hemp shops were closed. Medical cannabis was legalised in Malta in March 2018.  In May 2021, Partit Laburista proposed the legalization of recreational cannabis.  A bill authorizing the possession of up to 7 grams of cannabis and the private cultivation of up to four cannabis plants was published in October 2021. The bill also provides for the possibility of creating cannabis social clubs. They are allowed to give up to 50 grams of cannabis per month to their members.
The sale of cannabis and its use in public remains prohibited.  The Maltese Parliament passed the law on December 14, 2021. It entered into force on 18 December 2021 with the signature of Maltese President George Vella.  In April 2022, the Cannabis Responsible Use Authority published criteria for licensing cannabis associations.  On June 28, 2021, the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a law in the land that criminalizes marijuana use in general. The use of cannabis is not yet authorized and the drug trade remains prohibited; However, as of now, anyone who wishes to do so can apply for a permit to consume or grow cannabis.  In May 2022, the Supreme Court clarified that possession of any amount of marijuana is permitted, as long as it is for personal use.  In Poland, medical cannabis has been legalized since November 1, 2017. However, it has only been available in pharmacies since January 2019.  At its meeting on 31 March, the Federal Council adopted the possibility of the Federal Council. In March 2021, the Ordinance on Pilot Testing for the Controlled Distribution of Non-Medical Cannabis was adopted.
The regulation regulates the strict conditions for carrying out studies. These trials are intended to provide a sound scientific basis for future decisions on cannabis regulation. In August 2021, Federal Drug Commissioner Daniela Ludwig called for possession of cannabis up to a personal consumption limit of six grams to be prosecuted as an administrative offence and no longer as a criminal offence. As in Portugal, consumers should be able to choose whether to pay a fine or seek drug counselling.  In December 2018, the New Zealand government passed legislation legalizing the use of marijuana for medical purposes.  In Croatia, medical cannabis was legalized in 2015.  By 1. As of January 2021, CBD varieties are no longer subject to the Agricultural Seeds Act, which allows the placing on the market of seeds and seedlings for the production of so-called “CBD hemp” in agriculture.  In 2018, the Northern Mariana Islands became the first territory in the United States to legalize the possession of small amounts and the licensed production of recreational and recreational cannabis products.  In 2019, legalization followed in the outer territory of Guam.
 Thailand`s parliament decided in December 2018 to release medical marijuana. This makes Thailand the first country in Asia to legalize the medical use of cannabis. Private households are also allowed to grow cannabis for medical purposes or for the production of cosmetics.  A bill was announced for 2022 that makes no mention of legal sales opportunities – it would only legalize the cultivation of up to 4 cannabis plants per household and downgrade the possession and acquisition of up to 3 grams of cannabis to an administrative offense.  In June 2022, Cabinet passed legislation to this effect.  Criminal proceedings concerning the acquisition of small quantities of cannabis products in the order of “very small quantities” are generally abandoned by the Public Prosecutor`s Office on the basis of a 1994 judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court. The amount called the smallest amount is regulated differently in federal states. In North Rhine-Westphalia, for example, it is (in August 2013) 10 g of raw amount of cannabis.  Small amounts of cannabis are forfeited when found, but do not need to be tried in court. This rule applies only to occasional consumers, the interpretation of the decision is at the discretion of the judge or prosecutor and may depend on other circumstances of the individual case. If, on the basis of previous recruitments, there is the impression that the consumer is a long-term consumer, he cannot expect employment in accordance with the requirements of the Federal Constitutional Court. Likewise, there must be no danger to others due to public consumption.
In 1990, Lübeck judge Wolfgang Nešković called on the Federal Constitutional Court to legalize cannabis under the slogan “Right to intoxication”. So far, it has not responded to this request, but has instructed the Conference of Ministers of the Interior to set a national maximum limit for quantities of own consumption. So far, the full implementation of this measure has been neglected. Contrary to what is sometimes wrongly assumed, drugs are still not legal in Portugal. This does not even apply to possession of small amounts. However, possession of small quantities for personal consumption was decriminalized by Law 30/2000. Since then, it has been an administrative offence, such as illegal parking. Ten daily rations are considered limited consumption.
The respective amount for this has been precisely determined in the law. Anyone with up to 25 grams of marijuana is not threatened with punishment.